## Introduction

 Title : A Look into the Devils Eyes Author : Mark Allardyce ISBN : 1-905361-00-9 In this work the author gives you the full low down on one of the most enigmatic creatures on the planet. He describes and shows you most of the things you’d ever want to know about this amazing creature, including never before seen photographs and access to live and on demand media footage.

 Having graduated from the UK National Computing Centre, Mark worked in the computer laboratories at Salford University and British Nuclear Fuels for some years before setting up his first independent software development company. Read More Being a keen environmentalist, accomplished climber and sportsman he lectured at University College Salford on recreation and outdoor activity with a specific interest in the application of software systems. Subsequently many field trips to the Arctic were undertaken to study the effects of exercise in extreme conditions on staff and students. This research led him to establish a privately funded software research and development unit at Salford University Human Performance Laboratory. He subsequently launched the resultant pioneering interactive healthcare software and over the following years the system made significant inroads into the general healthcare and corporate market sectors, screening hundreds of thousands of people throughout the UK and Europe. The business was sold to a fully listed London Stock Exchange company at the height of the dot com boom. He was retained as Chief Executive Officer with offices in Manchester, London, New York and Jerusalem. Since retiring from the PLC he has established, launched and sold several other businesses. His current group of companies specialise in web-based interactive learning systems. He has written several collections of poetry; children’s short stories; a musical, and various works about the wolverine.

## Chapter Two – What is a wolverine?

 Picture a weasel — and most of us can do that, for we have met that little demon of destruction, that small atom of insensate courage, that symbol of slaughter, sleeplessness, and tireless, incredible activity — picture that scrap of demoniac fury, multiply that mite some fifty times, and you have the likeness of a Wolverine. Ernest Thompson Seton, 1909 Read More The wolverine is incredibly cunning and powerful, but is also extremely cautious. Almost 4 foot long, weighs around 30 pounds. Squat and low-hung, with a short bushy tail. Broad round head, short ears and black beady eyes. Eyesight is not as keen as his sense of smell. Resembles a cross between a small bear and a badger, wearing an evil looking eye mask. Walks with a loping weasel-like gait. Has a shaggy, dark brown coat and trademark broad ribbons of pale brown fur on each side. Sports the only fur in the world that allows frost to be easily brushed off. This gives it a commercial value for trimming hoods and parkas, which often ‘hoar up’ when breathed upon. Has very wide spread paws with webbing between his toes (Grzimeks 1972) which help to carry his weight on soft snow, the soles of which are covered in fur. His armoury of weapons include; razor sharp claws and anal glands that secrete a fetid smelling yellowish fluid making him known as the ‘Skunk-bear’. He is also known as the Hyena of the North’ as his jaws have a pressure poundage strong enough to crack frozen bones to powder or snap large branches with ease (he can even bite a lump from the butt of a rifle). Imagine taking a solid, frozen joint of meat from the freezer and trying to cut it. His fearsome jaws and teeth are so powerful that such frozen meat would make a fine meal. A wolverine can move a log so heavy that two men would be required to lift it. The only thing weak about him are his eyes, which he has a habit of shading with his paw, as a man does with his hand. This deficiency is offset, however, by a keen sense of smell. (White 1964) A solitary nomad; a tireless traveller; and, in proportion to his size, the strongest of all mammals in the northern forests. He is a unique combination of viciousness, courage and cunning. He is one of the most powerful, thievish, daring and efficient killing machines known to man. Cougars, lynx and grizzlies are known to relinquish a fresh carcass to him. Even a pack of wolves have given ground to a single wolverine. One specimen placed in a zoo promptly killed a polar bear. (Krott 1959, Sheldon 1930, White 1964). Throughout history the wolverine has been regarded as a mysterious creature, and this stands today as little is known about this powerful mammal. The wolverine is the largest terrestrial member of the family Mustelidae (weasels and badgers). He is known not only for his ferocity and strength but also his intelligence. One of the many stories of the wolverine concerns its strategy for catching deer, or other larger prey. He is said to climb into a tree carrying a quantity of moss in his mouth. When a deer approached he would let the moss fall to the ground, hopefully enticing the prey to feed off it. If the animal did stop then he would drop onto its back, fix firmly between the antlers and tear its victim’s eyes out. Following this, either from pain or to rid itself of its tormentor, the deer would bang its head against a tree until it fell dead. (Setton 1909) As unbelievable as this tale may be the wolverine is the source of many such stories. Native American Indians believe that: the wolverine is the earthly abode of the Devil, for how otherwise can be explained his seemingly supernatural knowledge of man’s ways. (White 1964) Such ‘evil being’ tales (lycanthropy) exist for many animals that appear to display human characteristics. Folklore says that creatures with the ability to change from human to wolf (in Europe) or bears, hyenas, leopards, tigers, etc. (in other parts of the world) can only be killed by a silver bullet. Mastin (1979) gives two examples of such wolverine tales. Reigning as the Evil Spirit of the North, he was the lost soul of a great hunter whose only joy was the pursuit of other hunters until they had been driven to the point of madness. Then, through some eerie phenomenon, the victims struck a bargain with their tormentor, and gained admission to his company of the damned. Equally chilling is another in which: the wolverine pursues the solitary hunter until overwhelmed with exhaustion and then the doomed mortal was devoured in a single meal with not a single shred of evidence left to explain their mysterious fate. Kozhechkin (2005) described one of the wolverine’s preferred methods of hunting. While his prey was eating or at rest the wolverine would take small quiet steps and then hide before making a quick, final spurt to bite and issue deep bleeding wounds. The wolverine holds no concept of fear. Once the melee begins, he will either win or die and not once ask or give any quarter. White (1964) reports that when in battle the wolverine is a terror, absolutely without fear. As he charges, bent on killing, he grunts and growls as if there were truly a devil under his shaggy hide. Regardless of the odds, he never retreats in a fight with another animal. It is invariably win or die. Despite his fearless and fearsome reputation the wolverine is extremely cautious, highly alert and always in a ‘ready to run’ state when around kill sites or in proximity to other predators or perceived danger. The wolverine stands accused of being a clever and deft thief. Formidable huntsmen and Canadian trappers have on numerous occasions testified to finding their traps emptied of their bait and even the traps, laid specifically for the wolverine, have been cunningly sprung and left to mock. They can climb down chimneys; tear apart shutter boards; chew through logs as thick as a mans thigh, and rip out window frames to satisfy their curious habit of stealing and hiding things for which they could have no possible use. They will remove and hide the entire contents of uninhabited hunting lodges; including guns, axes, knives, cooking utensils and blankets, and befouling whatever was left behind. So strong is this saga of invincibility that it was believed that only a silver bullet could kill this cunning beast. (Mastin 1979) Among the wolverines armoury of weapons it has long, immensly strong, curved claws. These claws are currently causing a conflict of opinion. Bancci (1994) states that they are semi-retractile, whereas Kozhechkin (1990) clearly reports that they are non-retractile: “In contrast to the lynx, the wolverines claws are not retractable, hence, this predator has to exert some additional efforts to hold itself on its prey”. Both arguments have support but more latterly the non-retractile opinion seems stronger. Found principally in the Arctic regions the wolverine has a continuous activity cycle of alternate 3 to 4 hour periods of activity and sleep. He does not hibernate and in his quest for food he appears both relentless and inexhaustible. With the added advantage of extra warmth and support from his hairy, large, wide-spreading feet he hunts hour after hour in bitter winds, drifting snow and sub-zero temperatures. (Krott 1959, Mastin 1979) Kozhechkin (2005) reported that the wolverine took an abundance of young and pregnant ungulates (Reindeer, Moose, Maral Deer) in deep snow conditions where there was a thin crust of ice formed on the snow. The heavier ungulates would flounder, sink and become stranded in the snow, making them easy prey for the wolverine which, with its large, wide-spreading feet, would seemingly glide over the deep snow to make its kill. Whether the prey be large or small, vicious or timid, the wolverine usually gets what he wants. White (1964) detailed the following wolverine story. Some years ago I was visiting the Hudson’s Bay Company’s factor at James Bay, in northern Ontario, when a distraught Cree trapper came into the post. The factor, a Scot, knew that something serious must have happened to the trapper, for this was the height of the trapping season and the Indian was a long way from his grounds. The Cree lived alone in a small log cabin about 60 miles from the post. He said that in the first few months of the season he had done exceptionally well, and had stored away in his snug cabin a nice catch of marten, ermine and fox pelts. Then a wolverine moved into his territory. After one tour of his ruined trap line, the Cree determined to kill the raider. Suspecting that the modern steel trap was much too simple for his wily enemy, he set out one morning with his dog, a large wolf-husky, to build a line of heavy deadfalls – the swift-death type of log trap used by generations of his forebears. Several times he crossed fresh tracks of the wolverine. The intermittent growling of his dog told him the malevolent little beast was close, so he kept his rifle handy. While he was eating a brief lunch, the dog flushed the wolverine. Hearing the commotion, the Cree plunged into the thicket and discovered the two thrashing on the ground. The wolverine had the big husky by the throat. Unable to shoot for fear of killing his dog, the Cree used his gun as a club. The wolverine let go and vanished into the brush as the Indian vainly tried a snap shot. The dog died of a severed jugular vein. More embittered than ever, the Cree worked hard building the heavy traps, but in late afternoon a blizzard came up, so he made camp for the night, hanging his snowshoes on a tree to keep them out of the reach of prowling animals. In the morning he discovered that the snowshoes had been cut down, the frames eaten through and the buckskin lacings methodically chopped into short lengths. Without snowshoes he could not wade through the deep drifts, and he had little food with him. So, after hiding his equipment, he floundered off in search of willow suitable for fashioning improvised snowshoes. He was gone less than an hour, but on his return found that his blanket was shredded and the small metal container carrying his matches had vanished. Worst of all, his precious rifle had been dragged away. Forcing back panic, the Indian set about making a crude pair of circular snowshoes with the willow branches. It was a torturous job, for he had no tools and no fire to warm his freezing fingers, but, salvaging what he could of the old buckskin lacings to make a temporary webbing, he at last was able to set out at dusk for his cabin. What he found at home was heartbreaking. The wolverine had methodically destroyed the Cree’s entire catch of pelts. He had eaten, carried off or otherwise hopelessly befouled all food not in cans. Everything destructible had been ruined. The sympathetic old factor gave the Cree credit for a complete new outfit of food, blankets, snowshoes, traps and a gun. After the Indian had left to continue his battle with the wolverine, I remarked that never before had I heard such a fantastic yarn. The dour Scot took down from a shelf a small booklet prepared by the Hudson’s Bay Company for professional trappers. The passage on the wolverine ends with these significant words: ‘When the wolverine appears on his line, the trapper has but two alternatives; he must trap the wolverine or give up trapping.’. Krott (1958) detailed the following wolverine story. Paul had just crossed the moor, where the delightful River Rall is no more than a little stream, when he suddenly stopped and sniffed again. The sweetish, attractive carrion smell was still there, but now there was something else as well. Another sweetish smell, but far from agreeable. Paul growled, the hairs along his spine stiffened, and his bushy tail described angry circles. With a few bounds he went up a slope, over debris and through a clump of birches along the ridge. It began to rain, which Paul didn’t normally care for at all, but he was now sufficiently interested to ignore the drizzle. He plunged into a thick spruce wood and came to a clearing. There lay a dead elk calf on which a big bear was happily feeding. That bear had earned his meal, for in his efforts to kill it he had been kicked black and blue by the calf’s mother before she gave up the struggle. It was something of a Pyrrhic victory; for the bear was now so stiff and sore he could hardly move. Paul took in the scene at a glance and circled cautiously. So far the bear had noticed nothing. Paul went in closer. The bear became aware of his presence and rose on his hind legs, though with some difficulty, for the slightest move was painful. Paul came still closer, baring his fangs and growling savagely. The yellow strip across his forehead turned his face into an ugly mask. The bear growled no less savagely, but withdrew a few paces; as Paul came closer he delivered a heavy blow with his great paw. Paul sprang swiftly to one side and before the bear could recover had leapt swiftly at his most sensitive spot, the muzzle, and buried his sharp claws in the bear’s underlip while his teeth tore a great gobbet out of the bear’s snout. With a howl of pain and anger the bear staggered back. Paul was in safety up the nearest tree in an instant. Painfully the big bear lumbered away. For a moment he paused and turned back, but Paul sprang down from the tree, snarling, teeth still bared and his tail swirling. At the fearsome sight the bear had had enough, and he turned again and made off, abandoning his rightful booty. Goodwin (1963) reports that; in spite of the wolverine’s wild and ferocious nature, if taken when young they make docile pets and become quite fond of their masters. Grzimeks (1972) reported that two wolverines at Bremerhaven Zoo, Germany were found to be extremely agitated by a nearby firework display. The Director reported that he entered their cage and calmed them by speaking softly and stroking them. They were so frantic in their cage that I thought they might fatally injure themselves. I went inside and spoke quietly to them, and just at that time both animals came to me and laid down. They pressed close to the ground, extended their heads slightly, perked up their ears, and extended all four legs. I laid my hand on each one’s head and could feel them trembling. The same Director, during floods in 1962, entered the enclosure because the wolverines were in danger of drowning. He spoke softly to the animals, picking them up in his arms, and he succeeded in preventing a potential catastrophe. It has been found in other zoos as well that hand-raised wolverines remain tame as adults and are unusually dependent on man, more so than almost any other carnivore. .quiz_section { display: none; }Welcome to the Chapter Two Quiz.There are 9 questions. 1) The wolverine is known as the ‘Skunk-bear’. True False2) The wolverine is not known as the ‘Hyena of the North’. True False3) The wolverine resembles a cross between a small bear and a badger wearing an evil looking eye mask. True False4) The wolverine is almost six feet long with a shaggy dark brown coat and trademark broad ribbons of pale brown fur on each side, culminating in a short bushy tail. True False5) The wolverine has very wide spread paws which help to carry his weight on soft snow. True False6) The wolverine’s armoury of weapons include; razor sharp claws. True False7) A wolverine can move a log so heavy that eight men would be required to lift it. True False8) A wolverine once killed a polar bear. True False9) The wolverine has a continuous activity cycle of alternate three to four periods of activity and sleep per week True False.mlw_qmn_quiz label { display: inline; } .ui-tooltip { max-width: 500px !important; } .ui-tooltip-content { max-width: 500px !important; } .qmn_error, .qmn_page_error_message { color: red; } .mlw_qmn_hint_link { text-decoration:underline; color:rgb(0,0,255); } .mlw_qmn_quiz_link { display: inline; vertical-align:top !important; text-decoration: none; } div.mlw_qmn_quiz input[type=radio], div.mlw_qmn_quiz input[type=submit], div.mlw_qmn_quiz label { cursor: pointer; } div.mlw_qmn_quiz input:not([type=submit]):focus, div.mlw_qmn_quiz textarea:focus { background: #eaeaea; } div.mlw_qmn_quiz { text-align: left; min-width:270px; border: #fff solid 5px; padding:20px; margin-left:8px; } div.quiz_section { margin-bottom:10px; } .mlw_horizontal_choice { margin-right: 20px; } div.mlw_qmn_timer { position:fixed; top:200px; right:0px; width:130px; color:#00CCFF; border-radius: 15px; background:#000000; text-align: center; padding: 15px 15px 15px 15px } div.mlw_qmn_quiz input[type=submit], a.mlw_qmn_quiz_link { border-radius: 4px; position: relative; background-image: linear-gradient(#fff,#dedede); background-color: #eee; border: #ccc solid 1px; color: #000; text-shadow: 0 1px 0 rgba(255,255,255,.5); box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; padding: 7px 7px 7px 7px; margin: auto; font-weight: bold; min-width:100px; cursor: pointer; } .mlw_qmn_question, .mlw_qmn_question_number, .mlw_qmn_comment_section_text { font-weight: bold; } .mlw_next { float: right; } .mlw_previous { float: left; } .mlw_qmn_question_comment, .mlw_answer_open_text, .qmn_comment_section { width: 100%; border-radius: 7px; padding: 2px 10px; -webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 3px 3px rgba(0,0,0,.075); box-shadow: inset 0 3px 3px rgba(0,0,0,.075); border: 1px solid #ccc; }

## Chapter Eight – What does it eat?

Wolverines are omnivores in the summer months and carnivores in the winter months. This may seem odd but, the following list of foods consumed by the wolverine is staggering.

Grinnell et al (1937), Hornocker and Hash (1981), Jackson (1961), Myhre and Myrberget (1968, 1969, 1975), Ognev (1935), Erkki Pulliainen (1980, 1988), Rausch and Pearson (1972), Whitman, Ballard and Gardner (1986) and Wilson (1982) report the following:

 Beaver Marmots Berries Mice Birds Moose Carrion Ptarmigan Chipmunks Rabbits Eggs Reindeer Fish Roe deer Fox Sheep Frogs Squirrels Geese Vole Gophers Walrus Grouse Waterfowl Hare Wasp Larvae Lemming

It has also been my personal observation that, even though the wolverine cannot digest fibre (Pulliainen 1988), they have a passion for gnawing and chewing wood (logs and tree stumps); they seem to savour some flavour therein. This may be substantiated by Myhre and Myrberget (1975); when examining the stomach contents of two wolverines they found a mass of wood splinters.

I would surmise that savouring the resin flavour and swallowing splinters may be a secondary effect to the procurement of bedding material and having a thoroughly enjoyable chew.

The above list is by no means exhaustive but should illustrate that the wolverine has the ability to consume whatever it happens across. In fact Haglund (1966) said that one often gets the impression that the wolverine is out trying to find something to eat rather than to prey for game. Pulliainen (1988) also said he is on the lookout for something to eat rather than something to hunt.

The wolverine has a general and opportunistic feeding pattern that applies to live game as well as carrion (Pulliainen 1988).

Even though the wolverine does take live game, which sometimes makes him a dire enemy of man, he is mostly a carrion eater. Burkholder (1962) observed a wolverine make a spectacular attack on a caribou. Hornocker and Hash (1981) believed wolverines utilised their keen sense of smell (they can locate carrion from 2 miles away) to locate hibernating marmots, then dig into their burrows and make the kill. Krott (1959) said the wolverine could kill smaller prey with a blow from the forepaw, but a characteristic head bite always follows.

Ewer (1973) reported that, when attacking larger animals, the wolverine would often leap onto the animal’s back and kill by biting the neck. Pulliainen (1980, 1988) reports that wolverines will kill reindeer in winter when the snow is firm enough to bear the wolverine’s weight but not the reindeer. He can kill as many as 10 in a night. This made him a real enemy of reindeer associations and private reindeer farmers.

Whilst reporting on various wolverine kill techniques, Kozhechkin (2005) stated that the objective appeared to be to hang on to the neck and bite.

“The morphological peculiarities of the wolverine make it an incredibly and unusually powerful predator”.

Due to his winter habitat, much of the food he happens across will be frozen solid. His powerful jaws are now of great use. Hornocker and Hash (1981) said that the wolverine is adapted for carrion feeding. Haglund (1966) reported that the wolverine’s jaws, teeth and skull structure allowed them to crush large bones and feed on frozen meat.

In the spring and summer months however, the food consumed is different. The wolverine finds more food available and takes on a more varied diet. Krott (1959) reported berries, eggs, insect larvae and insects. Hornocker and Hash (1981) found that in the summer they could not attract wolverines to freshly killed carcasses even when very close by, suggesting other sources of food were abundant. Another factor worthy of note was that, when animals at a higher elevation hibernated for the winter, the wolverine in response came to a lower elevation where food sources were more plentiful (Whitman, Ballard, Gardner 1986). The findings of Hornocker and Hash (1981) verify that the wolverine favours higher, cooler elevations in the spring and summer months.

I found that the liquid consumption of the wolverine in winter conditions was confined to taking a mouthful of snow, whereas in springtime they waded into marshy melt water areas and drank by lapping.

Ewer (1973) noted that when drinking, wolverines make treading movements with their forepaws. Krott (1959) interpreted this movement as a response to drinking in marshy areas where treading pushes down vegetation and causes water to puddle. Ewer (1973) believed that the movement may be derived from the infantile milk tread which stimulates milk flow from the mammary gland. Wilson (1982) suggested the movement is even made by captured animals however, I did not witness the treading movement during the period of my research with two captive animals.

My research agrees with that of Ognev (1935) and Krott (1959) who reported that the wolverine would bury caches of food in the snow and then scent-mark them to return later to consume their food. Hornocker and Hash (1981) explain that food caches could only be functional in areas where other scavenging species are rare and where permafrost exists.

Welcome to the Chapter Eight Quiz.
There are 9 questions.

1) Wolverines are omnivores in the summer months.
2) Wolverines are carnivores in the winter months.
3) Wolverines eat wood.
4) Wolverines hate carrion.
5) Wolverines never make fresh kills.
6) Wolverines can locate carrion from ten miles away.
7) Hibernating marmots are dug out and killed.
8) A wolverine can kill as many as ten reindeer in a night.
9) Wolverines eat berries, eggs, insect larvae and insects.

## Chapter Eleven – What is it worth?

 Fur and pelt prices Wolverine fur is valued, as much for its beauty and rarity, as it is for its function. Frost forms on wolverine fur, just as it does on wolf or coyote fur, but it can be easily brushed off. (Quick 1952) Read More Whether pelts are taken for function or beauty, they are certainly taken for a price. Liskop, Sadlier and Saunders (1981) report that trappers have a greatly increased incentive as pelt prices have risen spectacularly. Slough (2005) reports that a live wolverine can fetch as much as $2000 on the open market. Recent research found that a fur price ranged from$350 to $575. Farming and compensation Even though full compensation is paid to Finnish reindeer herders for losses caused by the wolverine, they are still very effectively hunted on snowmobiles. (Pulliainen 1988) Baer (2005) reports that the Swedish Government compensates for the deaths of Reindeer at a cost of approximately$6.3m per year. In pre 1969 Sweden, bounties were paid for wolverine hunting. Overnight the law was changed. It became illegal to hunt wolverine. The Government introduced The Coherent Predator Policy in 2001. The new system compensates reindeer herders, not for kills, but for the presence of wolverine in the husbandry area. Each wolverine reproduction is worth 20,000 euros (Lofgren 2005). However, in neighbouring Norway the Government compensates for killed domestic livestock. They spend approximately 14.9 million euros (\$19.2 million) per year (Kjorstad 2005). There would appear to be a conflict in management strategies, as one is paying for an increase in wolverine and their neighbour is paying for deaths of livestock. As wolverines know no international boundaries, the more the Swedish wolverines reproduce, the greater the chance of cross-border migration and, as such, the greater the cost. .quiz_section { display: none; }Welcome to the Chapter Eleven Quiz.There are 8 questions. 1) Compensation for losses for taken reindeer has stopped wolverine hunting. True False2) Frost forms on wolverine fur. True False3) Pelt prices have risen spectacularly. True False4) There are no conflicts in management strategies. True False5) Bounties are paid in Sweden for wolverine hunting. True False6) Snowmobiles play no part in wolverine hunting. True False.mlw_qmn_quiz label { display: inline; } .ui-tooltip { max-width: 500px !important; } .ui-tooltip-content { max-width: 500px !important; } .qmn_error, .qmn_page_error_message { color: red; } .mlw_qmn_hint_link { text-decoration:underline; color:rgb(0,0,255); } .mlw_qmn_quiz_link { display: inline; vertical-align:top !important; text-decoration: none; } div.mlw_qmn_quiz input[type=radio], div.mlw_qmn_quiz input[type=submit], div.mlw_qmn_quiz label { cursor: pointer; } div.mlw_qmn_quiz input:not([type=submit]):focus, div.mlw_qmn_quiz textarea:focus { background: #eaeaea; } div.mlw_qmn_quiz { text-align: left; min-width:270px; border: #fff solid 5px; padding:20px; margin-left:8px; } div.quiz_section { margin-bottom:10px; } .mlw_horizontal_choice { margin-right: 20px; } div.mlw_qmn_timer { position:fixed; top:200px; right:0px; width:130px; color:#00CCFF; border-radius: 15px; background:#000000; text-align: center; padding: 15px 15px 15px 15px } div.mlw_qmn_quiz input[type=submit], a.mlw_qmn_quiz_link { border-radius: 4px; position: relative; background-image: linear-gradient(#fff,#dedede); background-color: #eee; border: #ccc solid 1px; color: #000; text-shadow: 0 1px 0 rgba(255,255,255,.5); box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; padding: 7px 7px 7px 7px; margin: auto; font-weight: bold; min-width:100px; cursor: pointer; } .mlw_qmn_question, .mlw_qmn_question_number, .mlw_qmn_comment_section_text { font-weight: bold; } .mlw_next { float: right; } .mlw_previous { float: left; } .mlw_qmn_question_comment, .mlw_answer_open_text, .qmn_comment_section { width: 100%; border-radius: 7px; padding: 2px 10px; -webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 3px 3px rgba(0,0,0,.075); box-shadow: inset 0 3px 3px rgba(0,0,0,.075); border: 1px solid #ccc; }

## Summary

 My twenty three years of wolverine research has rewarded me in countless ways. It has been a real joy to witness the emergence of a network of wolverine management and research professionals. It is my hope and belief that these professionals will continue with the significant advances made to date, encouraging common global goals and policy in wolverine research and management. Any work that will help remove the clouds and shadows of mystery and spotlight the fascinating life of the wolverine will only further endear this wonderful creature to increasingly larger numbers of the general public. I believe that if we can successfully increase awareness and interest then this, in turn, will feed the enthusiasm for more research and, hopefully, swell the number of future professional researchers.